Top 100 Manual Testing Interview Questions

software testing

Top 100 Manual Testing Interview Questions

Definitive Guide to Acing Your Next Manual Testing Interview: Top 100 Questions and Answers

Top 100 Manual Testing Interview Questions

Manual testing is a critical part of the software development process and it plays a crucial role in ensuring the quality and functionality of a product. Therefore, candidates appearing for a manual testing interview need to have a thorough understanding of various testing concepts, techniques, and methodologies. The top 100 manual testing interview questions cover a wide range of topics such as testing fundamentals, test case design and execution, defect management, and automation testing. By practicing these questions, candidates can gain an in-depth knowledge of manual testing and confidently answer any question thrown at them during an interview. These questions also help candidates assess their strengths and identify areas where they need to improve, thus increasing their chances of cracking an interview and getting a job in the manual testing field.

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1 - What is software testing?

Software testing is the process of evaluating a system or software application to identify any defects, errors, or bugs. It is an essential step in the software development life cycle and helps to ensure that the final product meets the expected quality standards.

2) What are the different levels of software testing?

There are four levels of software testing: unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing. Unit testing involves testing individual units or modules of code, while integration testing verifies the combination of these units. System testing evaluates the entire system as a whole, and acceptance testing ensures that the system meets the business requirements.

3) What is the difference between functional and non functional testing?

Functional testing is focused on verifying the functionality and behavior of the system, while non functional testing evaluates the performance, security, and usability of the system.

4) What are the different types of software defects?

Software defects can be broadly classified as functional defects, performance defects, compatibility defects, usability defects, and interface defects.

5) What is a test case?

A test case is a detailed description of the steps to be followed and expected results for a particular test scenario. It helps to ensure that all aspects of the software are tested and to track the testing progress.

6) What is regression testing?

Regression testing is the process of retesting a software application to ensure that new changes or updates have not caused any previously working features to fail.

7) What are the common software testing techniques?

Some common software testing techniques include black box testing, white box testing, boundary value analysis, and error guessing.

8) What is the difference between manual and automated testing?

Manual testing involves executing tests manually without the use of any automation tools, while automated testing uses software tools to execute tests and compare actual results with expected results.

9) What is a bug/defect report?

A bug/defect report is a document that contains all the details of a software defect found during testing, including its severity, steps to reproduce, and the expected and actual results.

10) How do you prioritize the testing of features or functionality?

The prioritization of testing features or functionality depends on the business requirements, risk areas, and criticality of the features. The most important and high risk features should be tested first.

11) What is the difference between validation and verification?

Validation ensures that the system meets the business requirements, while verification ensures that the system is built according to the specifications and design.

12) What is exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is an ad hoc approach to testing where the test cases are not predefined, and the tester explores the software application to find defects and gain a better understanding of its functionalities.

13) How do you handle a difficult bug that does not reproduce?

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In this scenario, the tester can try to reproduce the bug on a different environment, gather more information from the developer, or use a debugger tool to track the bug.

14) What is a test plan?

A test plan is a document that outlines the approach, objectives, and scope of software testing. It also includes the timelines, resources, and responsibilities for each test phase.

15) What are test environments?

Test environments are dedicated setups used for testing software applications before deploying them to the production environment. They mimic the production environment and include all necessary hardware, software, and data.

16) What is the difference between smoke and sanity testing?

Smoke testing is a shallow and broad testing done to ensure that the primary functionalities of the software have not been broken, while sanity testing is a narrower and deeper testing to ensure that specific functionalities are working as expected.

17) What is a test harness?

A test harness is a collection of tools and software used to perform automated testing. It contains test scripts, test data, and a test execution engine.

18) What is benchmark testing?

Benchmark testing involves testing an application's performance against industry benchmarks or competitor products to measure its efficiency and identify areas for improvement.

19) How do you handle a last minute change in testing requirements?

In such cases, communication is key. The tester should discuss the impact of the change with the stakeholders, reevaluate the test plan, and adjust the testing approach accordingly.

20) What is the difference between alpha and beta testing?

Alpha testing is done by an internal team before releasing the software to external users, while beta testing is done by a select group of external users before the official release to the public.

21) What is acceptance testing?

Acceptance testing is the final phase of testing, where the software is tested to ensure that it meets the business requirements and is ready for deployment.

22) What is compatibility testing?

Compatibility testing is done to ensure that the software can run on different platforms, browsers, and devices without any compatibility issues.

23) How do you ensure the quality of your test cases?

Test cases should be well defined, cover all features and functionalities, and be reviewed and tested before execution to ensure their quality.

24) What is a test report?

A test report is a document that summarizes the test results, including the defects found, test coverage, and the overall quality of the software.

25) What is an equivalence partitioning?

Equivalence partitioning is a testing technique that divides the input data into equivalent classes and then tests only one data point from each class, reducing the number of test cases needed.

26) What is ad hoc testing?

Ad hoc testing is an informal and unplanned testing approach where the tester randomly explores the software looking for defects.

27) What is a test strategy?

A test strategy is an overall approach to testing, including the objectives, types of testing, resources, and timelines. It provides a high level view of how testing will be carried out for a particular project.

28) What is a use case?

A use case is a documented test scenario that outlines the steps to be followed to achieve a specific goal or functionality of the software.

29) What is the difference between positive and negative testing?

Positive testing verifies that the system behaves expectedly when valid inputs are given, while negative testing evaluates the system's behavior when invalid inputs are given.

30) How do you handle communication with developers during the testing process?

Effective communication with developers is crucial for successful testing. Testers should provide clear, detailed bug reports and should regularly update the developers on the status of testing.

31) What is Usability testing?

Usability testing is done to evaluate how easy and intuitive the software is for users to use. It involves a group of users performing specific tasks and providing feedback on their user experience.

32) What is mutation testing?

Mutation testing is a technique where changes are deliberately made to the code to see if the tests can detect the modifications. It helps to determine the effectiveness of the test suite.

33) What is a test closure report?

A test closure report is a document that summarizes the testing activities, including any issues or concerns, and provides recommendations for future testing.

34) What is risk based testing?

Risk based testing is a testing approach where the test cases are prioritized based on the risks associated with a particular feature or functionality.

35) How do you determine the appropriate level of testing for a project?

The level of testing needed depends on factors such as the complexity of the software, time and budget constraints, and criticality of the features. A risk based approach can help determine the appropriate level of testing.

36) What is a test log?

A test log is a document that records the details of all the tests performed, including the date, time, test case, and the results.

37) What is a build?

A build is a version of the software that is ready for testing or deployment. It is usually identified with a unique number or name.

38) What is boundary value analysis?

Boundary value analysis is a testing technique where the borders, edges, or limits of a particular input are tested to determine if they behave as expected.

39) What is a defect lifecycle?

The defect lifecycle describes the various stages a defect goes through, starting from identification to resolution, verification, and closure.

40) What is a test bed?

A test bed is an environment where the software is installed and tested. It should be similar to the production environment to ensure accurate testing results.

41) What is a walkthrough?

A walkthrough is a collaborative process where reviewers examine the software documentation or code, provide feedback, and suggest improvements.

42) What is a bug/defect tracking tool?

A bug/defect tracking tool is software that is used to manage and track the progress of reported defects throughout their lifecycle.

43) What is a production bug?

A production bug is a critical defect that is found in the live environment, which cannot be ignored or delayed for a fix. It affects the release of the software.

44) What is a traceability matrix?

A traceability matrix is a document that maps the requirements to the test cases to ensure that all the requirements have been covered by the tests.

45) What is regression test selection?

Regression test selection is a process of identifying only those test cases that are affected by the changes made to the software and executing them, saving time and effort.

46) What is data driven testing?

Data driven testing is a technique where test data is stored separately from the test scripts, and the data is fed to the scripts during their execution. It helps to test various combinations of data without writing multiple scripts.

47) What is a test environment management tool?

A test environment management tool helps to manage and maintain the various test environments, including their setup, configuration, and availability for testing.

48) What is integration testing?

Integration testing is done to verify the interaction and communication between different modules or systems within the software.

49) What is the purpose of a retrospective meeting?

A retrospective meeting is an opportunity for the testing team to reflect upon the testing process and identify areas for improvement in the future.

50) What is a recovery testing?

Recovery testing involves deliberately creating failures or errors in the system to test its ability to recover and continue functioning properly.

51) What is a defect triage meeting?

A defect triage meeting is a discussion between the stakeholders, project managers, developers, and testers to prioritize, assign and track the defects found during testing.

52) What is a positive and negative test case?

A positive test case verifies the expected functionality, while a negative test case tests for unexpected or incorrect behavior of the system.

53) What is a system test plan?

A system test plan is a document that outlines the approach and scope of the system testing phase. It includes the test objectives, timelines, resources, and responsibilities.

54) What is a test deliverable?

A test deliverable is a document or outcome of the testing process, such as a test plan, test report, or bug report.

55) What is an interrupt testing?

Interrupt testing is done to evaluate how the system handles various types of interruptions such as power failures, system crashes, or network outages.

56) How do you ensure the quality of your test data?

Test data should be diverse, realistic, and cover all possible scenarios. It should also be reviewed and validated before use to ensure its quality.

57) What is the purpose of negative testing?

Negative testing helps to identify any unexpected or incorrect behavior of the software. It is also known as error path testing.

58) What are the different levels of testing?

The different levels of testing include unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing, alpha testing, beta testing, and production testing.

59) What is integration management?

Integration management involves coordinating and managing the interactions between different systems or modules to ensure seamless functioning.

60) What is parallel testing?

Parallel testing involves running two or more versions of the software simultaneously to compare their results and identify any discrepancies.

61) What is API testing?

API (Application Programming Interface) testing involves testing the communication between different software systems, including server requests, responses, and data transfers.

62) What is the V model?

The V model is a software development model that involves testing at each stage of the development process, corresponding to the downwards slope of the letter V.

63) What is a defect dashboard?

A defect dashboard is a graphical representation of the defect status, including the number of open, closed, and unresolved defects, and their severity.

64) What is backend testing?

Backend testing, also known as database testing, verifies the functionality and performance of the database and its interfaces with the software.

65) What are the different types of reviews?

The different types of reviews include walkthroughs, code reviews, design reviews, and inspection meetings.

66) What is a bug/defect leakage?

Bug/defect leakage occurs when a defect is not identified or resolved during the testing process and is found in the production environment, causing a delay in release or affecting user experience.

67) What is soak testing?

Soak testing, also known as endurance testing, involves testing the system for an extended period to identify any performance issues or bottlenecks over time.

68) What is a code coverage tool?

A code coverage tool measures the amount of code tested by the test cases and identifies areas of code not covered by the tests.

69) What are the different types of test coverage?

The different types of test coverage include statement coverage, branch coverage, path coverage, decision coverage, and condition coverage.

70) How do you measure the effectiveness of your testing?

The effectiveness of testing can be measured by the number of defects found, test coverage, rework required, and user feedback.

71) What is a test specification document?

A test specification document outlines the detailed test scenarios, test data, and expected results for each test case.

72) What is a recovery plan?

A recovery plan is a documented strategy to restore the system to its original state in case the testing process fails or causes any damage to the system.

73) What is a testing checklist?

A testing checklist is a document that contains a list of tasks to be completed before, during, and after testing to ensure all necessary steps are covered.

74) What is a test effectiveness report?

A test effectiveness report summarizes the results of testing, including the defects found, their severity, and recommendations for future testing.

75) What is a project test closure document?

A project test closure document captures the lessons learned during the testing process, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the overall success of the testing phase.

76) What is a business requirement document (BRD)?

A business requirement document (BRD) captures all the business needs and objectives for the development of a software application.

77) What is a technical requirement document (TRD)?

A technical requirement document (TRD) outlines the technical specifications and requirements for building the software application.

78) What is a usability requirement?

A usability requirement defines the ease of use, intuitiveness, and user friendliness of the software application.

79) What is a functional requirement?

A functional requirement specifies the expected behavior and features of the software application, including input and output functions.

80) What is a non functional requirement?

A non functional requirement specifies the criteria that need to be met for the software application to be considered of high quality, including performance, security, and usability.

81) How do you prioritize defects?

Defects can be prioritized based on their impact, severity, and the business needs. The most critical and high risk defects should be fixed first.

82) What is a defect management process?

A defect management process defines how defects are reported, tracked, and resolved throughout the testing process.

83) What is a test management tool?

A test management tool helps to manage all aspects of the testing process, including tracking and reporting defects, managing test cases, and generating test reports.

84) What is a critical path in project management?

A critical path in project management is the sequence of tasks that, if delayed, will cause the entire project to be delayed.

85) What is the purpose of a test data management tool?

A test data management tool helps to create, manage, and modify test data for different test scenarios, without the need for manual data entry.

86) What is a performance test?

A performance test evaluates the speed, scalability, and stability of the system under various load and stress conditions.

87) What is agility in software testing?

Agility in software testing refers to the team's ability to respond and adapt to changes quickly, without affecting the quality and delivery of the product.

88) What is a test adapter?

A test adapter is a device or software used to connect a system under test with the test environment, allowing the tester to observe and measure its functionality.

89) What is a test case generator?

A test case generator automates the process of generating test cases and test data based on the business requirements or the code.

90) What is a test estimation?

Test estimation involves estimating the time, effort, and resources required for testing a software application, based on its size, complexity, and requirements.

91) What is a test coverage matrix?

A test coverage matrix is a document that maps the test cases to the requirements and helps to identify any coverage gaps in testing.

92) What is a test environment monitoring tool?

A test environment monitoring tool helps to keep track of the test environments' availability, usage, and configurations, and identifies any issues that may affect testing.

93) What is a performance criterion?

A performance criterion specifies the acceptable level of performance for the software application, such as response time, error rate, or transaction throughput.

94) What is a release candidate?

A release candidate is a version of the software application that goes through all testing phases and is considered almost ready for deployment to the production environment.

95) What is a risk register?

A risk register is a document that identifies all potential risks that may affect the project and defines mitigation strategies to minimize their impact.

96) What is a test request?

A test request is a formal document that outlines the testing requirements, objectives, and timelines for a particular project.

97) What is a test data generator?

A test data generator creates large, realistic datasets that are used for testing various scenarios, saving time and effort compared to manual data entry.

98) What is a parallel run?

A parallel run involves simultaneously running two different versions of the software, comparing their results and identifying any discrepancies.

99) What is a quality assurance (QA) plan?

A quality assurance (QA) plan outlines the overall approach, responsibilities, and processes for ensuring the final product's quality and meeting the required standards.

100) What is a testing center of excellence (TCoE)?

A testing center of excellence (TCoE) is a centralized team and facility responsible for establishing and promoting best practices, methods, and tools for testing within an organization.


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