Sql Server Interview Questions For Freshers

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Sql Server Interview Questions For Freshers

Essential SQL Server Interview Questions for Freshers

Sql Server Interview Questions For Freshers

In SQL Server interviews for freshers, candidates are often asked to explain the basic concepts of database management, such as normalization, indexing, and data types. They may also be tested on their understanding of SQL queries, joins, and transactions. Additionally, interviewers may inquire about the candidate's ability to troubleshoot common issues, such as performance tuning and data integrity problems. Knowledge of SQL Server features like stored procedures, triggers, and views is also typically assessed. It's important for freshers to have a good grasp of these fundamental concepts and be able to demonstrate problem-solving skills to succeed in SQL Server interviews.

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1 - What are the different types of JOINs in SQL Server?

There are four main types of JOINs in SQL Server: INNER JOIN, LEFT JOIN (or LEFT OUTER JOIN), RIGHT JOIN (or RIGHT OUTER JOIN), and FULL JOIN. INNER JOIN retrieves records that have matching values in both tables, LEFT JOIN returns all records from the left table and the matched records from the right table, RIGHT JOIN does the opposite of LEFT JOIN, and FULL JOIN returns all records when there is a match in either left or right table.

2) Explain the difference between CHAR and VARCHAR data types in SQL Server.

CHAR and VARCHAR are both used to store character strings in SQL Server, but they differ in their storage requirements. CHAR is a fixed length data type that stores a specific length of characters, while VARCHAR is a variable length data type that only stores the actual characters entered (up to a maximum length). CHAR will always use the defined length in storage, while VARCHAR will only use storage space for the characters entered.

3) What is a primary key and foreign key in SQL Server?

A primary key is a column or a set of columns that uniquely identify each record in a table. It ensures that each row in a table is uniquely identified and does not contain duplicate values. A foreign key, on the other hand, establishes a relationship between two tables by referencing the primary key of another table. It helps maintain referential integrity by ensuring that values in the foreign key column exist in the referenced table's primary key column.

4) How can you improve the performance of a slow running query in SQL Server?

There are several ways to improve the performance of a slow running query in SQL Server, such as optimizing the query using appropriate indexing, reviewing the execution plan to identify bottlenecks, avoiding the use of SELECT *, limiting the use of functions in WHERE clauses, and updating statistics for tables involved in the query. Additionally, rewriting the query to use more efficient techniques like JOINs instead of subqueries can also help enhance performance.

5) What is normalization in SQL Server and why is it important?

Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database to reduce redundancy and dependency by dividing large tables into smaller tables and defining relationships between them. It helps maintain data integrity, avoid data anomalies like update anomalies, insertion anomalies, and deletion anomalies, and improve database performance by reducing storage space. Different normalization forms (1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF) ensure that a database is structured in an efficient and non redundant manner.


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