Oops Concepts In Php Interview Questions

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Oops Concepts In Php Interview Questions

PHP Oops Concepts: Commonly Asked Interview Questions

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that focuses on the concepts of objects and classes. In OOP, objects are instances of classes and classes are used to create objects with certain properties and behaviors. OOP also involves concepts such as encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction. Encapsulation refers to the ability to hide the internal workings of an object, inheritance allows classes to inherit properties and methods from other classes, polymorphism allows objects to behave differently depending on the context, and abstraction allows for creating more generic and reusable code. These concepts help in creating modular, flexible, and maintainable code, making OOP a popular approach in modern programming languages like PHP.

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1 - What are the four pillars of Object Oriented Programming (OOP)?

  1. Abstraction – Abstraction is the process of hiding unnecessary details and only showing essential information to the user. It allows the user to focus on what is important and ignore what is not.
  2. 2) Encapsulation – Encapsulation is the concept of combining data and functions into a single unit, known as an object. It protects these data and functions from being accessed directly by the user and can only be accessed through methods defined by the object.
  3. 3) Inheritance – Inheritance is the process of creating new classes from existing classes. It allows the new class to inherit properties and methods from the parent class, reducing redundancy and promoting code reuse.
  4. 4) Polymorphism – Polymorphism is the ability of an object to take on multiple forms. It allows different objects to respond to the same message in different ways, depending on their structure and behavior.
  5. 2) What is the difference between an abstract class and an interface?
  6. An abstract class is a base class that cannot be instantiated, meaning objects cannot be created from it. It is used to define common properties and methods that can be inherited by its child classes. An interface, on the other hand, is a collection of abstract methods and constants that a class must implement. It is used to define a set of behaviors that a class must have, without providing any implementation.
  7. 3) How is method overriding different from method overloading?
  8. Method overriding is the process of creating a method in a child class that has the same name and parameters as a method in the parent class. It allows the child class to modify or extend the functionality of the parent class method. Method overloading, on the other hand, is the process of creating multiple methods with the same name but different parameters within the same class. It allows the class to perform different operations based on the arguments passed to the method.
  9. 4) What is the purpose of a constructor?
  10. A constructor is a special method that is automatically called when an object is created. It is used to initialize the object's properties and perform any necessary setup actions before the object can be used. It also helps to ensure that the object is always in a valid state when it is created.
  11. 5) What is the significance of the “this” keyword in OOP?
  12. The “this” keyword refers to the current object within a class. It is used to access the properties and methods of the object, making it easier to manipulate the object's data from within its own class. It is particularly useful when working with class methods that have the same name as a class property.

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