Java Backend Developer Interview Questions

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Java Backend Developer Interview Questions

Java Backend Developer Interview Questions: Ace Your Next Interview with These Essential Questions

Java Backend Developer interview questions focus on assessing a candidate's technical skills and knowledge of Java programming, database management, and software development concepts. They may also assess their problem-solving abilities, coding proficiency, and familiarity with tools and frameworks commonly used in backend development. These questions aim to evaluate the candidate's experience and ability to design, develop, and maintain efficient and scalable backend systems, as well as their understanding of software architecture, security, and performance optimization. Employers are also likely to ask about the candidate's experience with agile methodologies, testing, and troubleshooting, as well as their ability to work in a team and communicate effectively.

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1 - What is the difference between a class and an object?

A class is a blueprint or template that describes the behavior and characteristics of an object, while an object is an instance of a class that has specific values assigned to its attributes. In simpler terms, a class defines what an object will be, and an object is a specific instance of a class.

2) What is encapsulation?

Encapsulation is the process of hiding the internal workings of an object from the outside and providing access only through a well-defined interface. It helps in making the code more manageable, maintainable, and secure by preventing direct access to the internal data of an object.

3) What is inheritance?

Inheritance is the process by which one class can inherit the properties and methods of another class. This allows for code reuse and promotes a hierarchical structure in the code. Inheritance is an important aspect of object-oriented programming and aids in creating modular, efficient, and easily maintainable code.

4) What is the difference between method overriding and method overloading?

Method overriding is a process in which a child class defines a method with the same name and signature as that of a method in its parent class. This allows for the child class to provide its own implementation of the method. On the other hand, method overloading is a process in which multiple methods have the same name but different parameters, allowing for different variations of the method to be called.

5) What are the basic data types in Java?

The basic data types in Java are int, double, char, boolean, byte, short, long, float, and String. Integer and floating-point numbers are used for numeric values, char is used for characters, boolean is used for logical values, and String is used for storing text.

6) What is a constructor? 

A constructor is a special method used to initialize objects of a class. It has the same name as the class and is called automatically when an object is created. It is used to assign initial values to the attributes of an object and can be overloaded to have different variations of initialization.

7) What is the difference between a static method and a non-static method?

A static method belongs to a class and can be called without creating an instance of the class, while a non-static method belongs to an object and can only be called on an instance of the class. Static methods are used for general utility tasks, while non-static methods are used for manipulating and accessing object-specific data.

8) What is a package in Java?

A package is a collection of related classes and interfaces, used for organizing and managing code. It helps in avoiding naming conflicts and provides a way to bundle related functionality together.

9) What is the difference between an abstract class and an interface?

An abstract class is a class that cannot be instantiated and contains at least one abstract method, while an interface is a collection of abstract methods and constants. An abstract class can have both abstract and non-abstract methods with defined implementations, while an interface can only have abstract methods. A class can extend only one abstract class but can implement multiple interfaces.

10) How does exception handling work in Java?

Exception handling is a mechanism for handling runtime errors and preventing the program from crashing. In Java, exceptions are objects that describe an error or an unexpected condition. When an exception occurs, it can be caught and handled using try-catch blocks to perform specific actions or display error messages.

11) What is a JVM and how does it work?

JVM stands for Java Virtual Machine and it is a virtual machine that executes Java bytecode. It acts as a runtime environment for Java programs and handles tasks like memory management, garbage collection, and bytecode interpretation. It translates the platform-independent bytecode into platform-specific machine language instructions, allowing Java programs to run on any platform that has a JVM installed.

12) What is the difference between a String, StringBuffer, and StringBuilder?

String is an immutable class, meaning its values cannot be modified once it is created. StringBuffer and StringBuilder, on the other hand, are mutable classes and can be modified. StringBuffer is thread-safe, meaning it can be accessed by multiple threads simultaneously, while StringBuilder is not thread-safe.

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13) What is a Lambda expression?

A Lambda expression is an anonymous function that is used to implement functional interfaces in Java. It simplifies the writing of code by reducing the amount of boilerplate code needed for functional programming.

14) What is the difference between a shallow copy and a deep copy in Java?

A shallow copy of an object creates a new object that points to the same memory location as the original object, meaning any changes made to the copy will reflect in the original object. A deep copy, on the other hand, creates a new object with its own separate memory space, allowing for modifications to be made without affecting the original object.

15) What is the role of garbage collection in Java?

Garbage collection is the process of automatically managing and freeing up memory used by objects that are no longer referenced in the program. This helps in optimizing memory usage and prevents memory leaks. Java has a built-in garbage collector that runs in the background to handle memory management.

 

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